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考研阅读(一)-医疗科学(1)
作者:佚名    来源:本站原创    点击数:   更新时间:2007年06月10日
 
Facing Your Genetic Destiny

  The use of predictive genetic tests is still limited to a handful of relatively rare and highly hereditary diseases, but that‘s about to change.

  1、Gene n. 基因,遗传因子

  Genetic adj.遗传的;起源的;遗传学的

  Genom/genome n.【生物】整组基因; 整组遗传因子

  这些词可以和其他词复合出很多新词。

  2、A handful of

  千万不要看到-ful的后缀就理解成“很多”的意思,仔细看,是hand+ful,最多也不过“一把”啊。handful n. 一把;少数;一小撮

  e: a handful of rice 一把米

  a handful of militarists 一小撮军国主义分子

  3、hereditary adj. 遗传 (性) 的

  inherited adj. 遗传的; 流传下来的; 继承的 (在第三段出现)

  e: a hereditary character(istic) 【生物】遗传特质 [特征]

  Marina, a young woman living near Varese, Italy, stood chatting with her neighbors one day two years ago when she suddenly dropped to the floor, clutching her chest. People around her panicked. But after a seemingly endless second, a violent spasm shook her body and Marina awakened. She was shocked but alive and well.

  1、panicked 恐慌的,惊慌失措的

  2、a seemingly endless second

  seemingly:似乎,好象

  For doctors at the local hospital, the diagnosis was easy: Marina had suffered from ventricular fibrillation, a potentially lethal block of the heart muscle. After a quick checkup, she returned to her normal life. But this was no miracle: Marina survived because she was aware of a defect in her heart and took the necessary precautions.

  1、ventricular a. 室的,心室的,膨胀的

  2、fibrillation n. 原纤维形成过程 【医】纤维性颤动

  fiber 纤维,纤维质;光纤;性情

  fibre 纤维,纤维质

  Indeed, years before, two of her sisters had died from a rare inherited disease called stress-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VTSIP). People with this disease are at risk of fibrillation at any moment but especially after physical or emotional stress. Standard exams, such as an electrocardiogram, are usually unable to reveal the condition, but a genetic test can.  

1、die from/through/of 因…致死

  2、electrocardiogram (C) 【医】心电图((略作 ECG)

  cardiogram和electrocardiogram同义

  "VTSIP is caused by mutations in a gene called Ryr-2 that regulates the electric activity of the heart," says Silvia Priori, a cardiologist at the Maugeri Foundation in Pavia, Italy, who discovered the genetic alteration together with colleagues about three years ago. When doctors performed the gene test on Marina‘s DNA, they discovered that she carried the defective form of the gene. "Her risk of a having a heart attack was high," Priori says--"about 70 percent" during her lifetime.

  1、mutation n.突变,变异

  2、regulate vt. 有系统地管理

  3、the defective 有缺陷的人

  defective a. 有缺陷的,欠缺的

  So before any life-threatening symptoms could appear, Marina and another sister, who also tested positive, had miniature automatic defibrillators implanted in their chests. When Marina‘s heart fibrillated in front of her neighbors, the lifesaving device was able to jump-start the organ. An ambulance, and a regular defibrillator, would have probably arrived too late.

  那么到底什么是the use of predictive genetic tests 呢?且听下会分解!

  Know Your Genes, Save Your Life.

  Marina‘s story is an extreme example of a gene test that made a difference between life and death. But like Marina, hundreds of people around the world take advantage of genetic testing to detect and alter the course of various disorders. For example, hereditary hemochromatosis, or "iron disease," causes a slow accumulation of iron in many organs. Among Caucasians, it affects about 1 in 300 people, resulting in liver damage, diabetes and impotence after their 40s or 50s. Genetic testing can spot the disease in children or young adults before symptoms appear, and regular bloodletting can then prevent the condition‘s consequences.

  1、make a difference起作用;发生影响
e: One false step will make a great difference.失之毫厘,谬以千里。

  2、Caucasians n. 高加索人;白种人

  3、bloodletting=blood+letting 顾名思义就是放血的意思.

  The use of predictive gene tests is still limited to a handful of relatively rare and highly hereditary diseases. But that scenario is about to change: scientists in academic and corporate laboratories are tirelessly digging through human DNA to find genetic variations that make individuals susceptible to common diseases, including Alzheimer‘s, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and stroke. Whereas today doctors calculate our risk profile for disease using a few one-size-fits-all parameters, such as cholesterol levels, blood pressure and the number of cigarettes we smoke, tomorrow they might instead consider our complex, and personalized, genetic risk pattern.

  1、one-size-fits-all同后面的personalized形成对比。

  2、常见病的用语:diabetes(注意尾巴的“S”) n.糖尿病 stroke 中风 cardiac 心脏病

  French Nobel laureate Jean Dausset was first to see the predictive value of genetic testing. "[...]medicine was, in its history, first of all curative, then preventive and finally predictive, whereas today the order is reversed: initially predictive, then preventive and finally, only in desperation, curative," he wrote. In the 1960s Dausset discovered the HLA antigens, molecules on the surface of white blood cells that are necessary for the immune response. The same antigens determine whether a transplanted organ will be rejected, which explains why it is often difficult to find a match: there are many genetically determined HLA "flavors."

  1、从传统的curative(治疗)→preventive(预防)→predictive(预测)到现代predictive→preventive→curative genetic test扮演了一个神气的角色。

  2、antigen(免疫抗体)的类型是否相同→决定a transplanted organ是否可以进行。

  Dausset found that certain HLA flavors were often associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as juvenile diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis .


  For example, one in five people carrying a version of HLA called B27 will develop ankylosing spondylitis, an inflammatory disease of the vertebrae. And subsequent studies on twins and families have revealed strong hereditary components to virtually all common disorders--from diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer to many mental disorders, including depression, schizophrenia and autism.

  1、autoimmune=auto+immune(免疫)表示“自体免疫”的意思。

  2、asthma n.哮喘症 hypertension n.高血压

  3、最后一句稍微复杂些,我们理解时应该先拎出句子的主干:studies have revealed components to disorders(from physical disorders to mental disorders) .


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